In this article, we will mention the skin aging prevention methods are are proved to have at least some benefits in the area.
Anti-aging creams are predominantly moisturizer based cosmeceutical skin care products marketed with the promise of making the consumer look younger by reducing visible wrinkles, expression lines, blemishes, pigmentation changes, discolourations and other environmentally (especially from the sun) related conditions of the skin. A comprehensive grading scale for anti-aging of the skin has been validated and categorizes skin aging as: laxity (sagging), rhytids (wrinkles), and the various categories of photoaging, including erythema (redness), dyspigmentation (brown discolorations), solar elastosis (yellowing), keratoses (abnormal growths), and poor texture.
Despite great demand, many such products and treatments have not been proven to give lasting or major positive effects. One study found that the best performing creams reduced wrinkles by less than 10% over 12 weeks which is not noticeable to the human eye. Another study found that cheap moisturisers were as effective as high-priced anti-wrinkle creams. However, recent studies at Manchester University showed that some ingredients have an effect.
Traditionally, anti-aging creams have been marketed towards women, but products specifically targeting men are increasingly common.
As well as more conventional moisturizing ingredients, anti-aging creams usually contain anti-aging ingredients such as:
Retinol (for instance, in the form of retinyl palmitate). In various formulations it has been shown to reduce fine lines and pores. All retinoid forms of vitamin A are used in cosmetic and medical applications applied to the skin. Retinoic acid, termed Tretinoin in clinical usage, is used in the treatment of acne and keratosis pilaris in a topical cream. An isomer of tretinoin, isotretinoin is also used orally (under the trade names Accutane and Roaccutane), generally for severe or recalcitrant acne. In cosmetics, vitamin A derivatives are used as anti-aging chemicals- vitamin A is absorbed through the skin and increases the rate of skin turnover, and gives an increase in collagen giving a more youthful appearance.
Epidermal Growth Factor, made of 53 amino acids to stimulate cell renewal and Collagen production in the skin and strengthen elasticity and structure. The discovery of Epidermal Growth Factor won Dr. Stanley Cohen a Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1986. In various research Epidermal Growth Factor has been shown to reduce fine lines, wrinkles and sagging. It also has healing (wounds and burns) and anti-inflammatory properties when applied to skin.
Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) and beta hydroxy acids or other chemical peels. These help to dissolve the intracellular “glue” that holds the dead cells together on the skin. The use of this type of product on a daily basis gradually enhances the exfoliation of the epidermis. This exposes newer skin cells and can help improve appearance. AHAs may irritate some skin, causing redness and flaking.
Peptides, such as Argireline (acetyl hexapeptide-3), Matryxil, and copper peptides.
Coenzyme Q10 – also known as ubiquinone or ubidecarenone. While some researchers believe that Q10 is beneficial in treating and preventing heart disease, and other conditions, no studies to date confirm this definitively. However, Q10 is recognized as aiding the immune system, increasing body energy and working as an antioxidant. And since having a healthy immune system helps with maintaining the health of our skin — and antioxidants help the body fight free radicals and aging of the skin — increasing the level of Q10 in the body by taking a supplemental form of it, does provide skin benefits.
Anti-oxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals.
Sunscreens. A high level of UVA protection is recommended as UVA radiation is associated with aging effects such as wrinkles on the long term.
The effects of these ingredients depends on their concentration and mode of application. Many skin care companies recommend using a treatment program which may combine these ingredients. For example, AHAs can make the skin more vulnerable to damage from the sun, so the increased use of sunscreens is often recommended.
Traditional moisturisers or sunscreens may provide many of the same benefits as some anti-aging creams.
Mechanical exfoliation is an alternative to chemical peels using ingredients such as crushed apricot kernals, salt, sponges or brushes.
Technically, a wrinkle is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin. Skin wrinkles typically appear as a result of aging processes such as glycation or, temporarily, as the result of prolonged (more than a few minutes) immersion in water. Wrinkling in the skin is caused by habitual facial expressions, aging, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration, and various other factors. With prolonged water exposure, the outer layer of skin starts to absorb water. The skin doesn’t expand evenly, causing it to wrinkle. Depletion of water in the body, as occurs with dehydration, can also cause this puckering of the skin. Cortisol causes degradation of skin collagen.
Although the exact mode of action of tretinoin is unknown, current evidence suggests that tretinoin decreases cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells. Additionally, tretinoin stimulates mitotic activity and increased turnover of follicular epithelial cells. Tretinoin is better known by the brand name Retin-A.
Epidermal Growth Factor
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a small polypeptide of 53 amino acids and is a cytokine or cell messenger protein that stimulates epithelial cell proliferation. The discovery of EGF won Dr. Stanley Cohen a Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1986. Taken internally, it is used to treat some devastating conditions of premature infants, as well as enlarged prostate in adult males. In cream form it stimulates cell renewal but decreases collagen production in the skin. It is also helpful for wound and burn healing and has achieved amazing cures of severe ulcerating skin diseases such as life-threatening Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS).
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are produced by the body to maintain structural integrity in tissues and to maintain fluid balance. Hyaluronic acid is a type of GAG that promotes collagen synthesis, repair, and hydration. GAGs serve as a natural moisturizer and lubricant between epidermal cells to inhibit the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Topical glycosaminoglycans supplements can help to provide temporary restoration of enzyme balance to slow or prevent matrix breakdown and consequent onset of wrinkle formation.
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. BOTOX (onabotulinumtoxinA) is a specific form of botulinum toxin manufactured by Allergan Inc (U.S.) for both therapeutic as well as cosmetic use. Besides its cosmetic application, BOTOX is used in the treatment of other conditions including migraine headache and cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) (a neuromuscular disorder involving the head and neck).
In 2009, a new form of botulinum toxin became available to Americans. Dysport (abotulinumtoxinA), manufactured by Ipsen, received FDA approval and is now used to treat cervical dystonia as well as glabellar lines in adults. Dysport and BOTOX are not interchangeable, however, as the molecular structure of the two drugs are different.
Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of all wrinkles – it is indicated for the treatment of glabellar lines (between the eyebrows) in adults. Any other usage is not approved by the FDA and is considered “off-label” use.