Here is a list with the most often conditions/illnesses that start with letter “C“:
- Cardiac arrest
- Central core disease
- Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease
- Chlamydia infection
- Cleft lip
- Common cold
- Cone dystrophy
- Congenital disorder
Calculus is a stone (a concretion of material, usually mineral salts) that forms in an organ or duct of the body. Formation of calculi is known as lithiasis. Stones cause a number of medical conditions.
Some common principles apply to stones at any location, but for specifics see the particular stone type in question.
Calculi are not to be confused with gastroliths. Types of calculi/lithiasis are: * Calculi in the renal system (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra) can be of any one of several compositions, including mixed. Principal compositions include oxalate and urate. * Calculi in the nasal passages (rhinoliths) are rare. * Calculi in the gastrointestinal tract (enteroliths) can be enormous. Individual enteroliths weighting many pounds have been reported in horses. * Salivary duct calculus and * Tonsillolith
Calculi usually are asymptomatic, and large calculi may have required many years to grow to their large size.
Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacter bacterium, most commonly C. jejuni (Campylobacter jejuni). It is among the most common bacterial infections of humans, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.
Campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter organisms. These are curved or spiral, motile, non–spore-forming, Gram-negative rods. This is most commonly caused by C. jejuni, a spiral and comma shaped bacterium normally found in cattle, swine, and birds, where it is nonpathogenic, but the illness can also be caused by C. coli (also found in cattle, swine, and birds), C. upsaliensis (found in cats and dogs) and C. lari (present in seabirds in particular).
The common routes of transmission for the disease-causing bacteria are fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food (generally unpasteurized (raw) milk and undercooked or poorly handled poultry), and waterborne (i.e. through contaminated drinking water). Contact with contaminated poultry, livestock, or household pets, especially puppies, can also cause disease. Animals farmed for meat are the main source of campylobacteriosis.
Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of disease in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth through division beyond normal limits, invasion that intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues, and sometimes metastasis, in which cancer cells spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood. These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited and do not invade or metastasize.
Cancers are primarily an environmental disease with 90-95% of cases due environmental factors such as lifestyle, and 5-10% directly due to heredity. Common environmental factors leading to cancer include: tobacco (25-30%), diet and obesity (30-35%), infections (15-20%), radiation, stress, lack of physical activity, and environmental pollutants. These environmental factors cause or enhance abnormalities in the genetic material of cells.
Cancers are classified by the type of cell that the tumor resembles and is therefore presumed to be the origin of the tumor. These types include: * Carcinoma: Cancer derived from epithelial cells. This group includes many of the most common cancers, including those of the breast, prostate, lung and colon. * Sarcoma: Cancer derived from connective tissue, or mesenchymal cells. * Lymphoma and leukemia: Cancer derived from hematopoietic (blood-forming) cells. * Germ cell tumor: Cancer derived from pluripotent cells. In adults these are most often found in the testicle and ovary, but are more common in babies and young children. * Blastoma: Cancer derived from immature “precursor” or embryonic tissue. These are also commonest in children.
Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most common. Also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.
Candidiasis encompasses infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases. Candida infections of the latter category are also referred to as candidemia and are usually confined to severely immunocompromised persons, such as cancer, transplant, and AIDS patients as well as non-trauma emergency surgery patients.
Superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes by Candida causing local inflammation and discomfort are common in many human populations. Most candidial infections are treatable and result in minimal complications such as redness, itching and discomfort, though complication may be severe or fatal if left untreated in certain populations.
It is a very common cause of vaginal irritation, or vaginitis, and can also occur on the male genitals.
Cardiac arrest (also known as cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest) is the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the heart to contract effectively. Medical personnel can refer to an unexpected cardiac arrest as a sudden cardiac arrest or SCA.
A cardiac arrest is different from (but may be caused by) a heart attack, where blood flow to the muscle of the heart is impaired. Arrested blood circulation prevents delivery of oxygen to the body. Lack of oxygen to the brain causes loss of consciousness, which then results in abnormal or absent breathing. Brain injury is likely if cardiac arrest goes untreated for more than five minutes. For the best chance of survival and neurological recovery, immediate and decisive treatment is imperative.
Cardiac arrest is an abrupt cessation of pump function in the heart (as evidenced by the absence of a palpable pulse). Prompt intervention can usually reverse a cardiac arrest, but without such intervention it will almost always lead to death. In certain cases, it is an expected outcome to a serious illness.
The risk factors are similar to those seen with coronary heart disease including: smoking, lack of physical exercise, obesity, diabetes, and family history.
Cardiomyopathy, which literally means “heart muscle disease” is the deterioration of the function of the myocardium (i.e. the actual heart muscle) for any reason. People with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death or both. Although in theory the term “cardiomyopathy” could apply to almost any disease affecting the heart, in practice it is usually reserved for “severe myocardial disease leading to heart failure”.
Symptoms and signs may mimic those of almost any form of heart disease. Chest pain is common. Mild myocarditis or cardiomyopathy is frequently asymptomatic; severe cases are associated with heart failure, arrhythmias, and systemic embolization. Manifestations of the underlying disease (e.g. Chagas’ disease) may be prominent. Treatment depends on the type of cardiomyopathy, but may include medication, implanted pacemakers, defibrillators, or ventricular assist devices (LVADs) or ablation. The goal of treatment is often symptom relief, and some patients may eventually require a heart transplant. Treatment of cardiomyopathy using alternative methods such as stem cell therapy is commercially available but is not supported by convincing evidence.
Cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light. Early in the development of age-related cataract the power of the lens may be increased, causing near-sightedness (myopia), and the gradual yellowing and opacification of the lens may reduce the perception of blue colors. Cataracts typically progress slowly to cause vision loss and are potentially blinding if untreated. The condition usually affects both the eyes, but almost always one eye is affected earlier than the other. Age-related cataract is responsible for 48% of world blindness, which represents about 18 million people, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
As a cataract becomes more opaque, clear vision is compromised. A loss of visual acuity is noted. Contrast sensitivity is also lost, so that contours, shadows and color vision are less vivid. Veiling glare can be a problem as light is scattered by the cataract into the eye. The affected eye will have an absent red reflex. A contrast sensitivity test should be performed and if a loss in contrast sensitivity is demonstrated an eye specialist consultation is recommended.
Cataracts develop for a variety of reasons, including long-term exposure to ultraviolet light, exposure to radiation, secondary effects of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and advanced age, or trauma (possibly much earlier); they are usually a result of denaturation of lens protein. Genetic factors are often a cause of congenital cataracts and positive family history may also play a role in predisposing someone to cataracts at an earlier age, a phenomenon of “anticipation” in pre-senile cataracts. Cataracts may also be produced by eye injury or physical trauma.
Central core disease (CCD), also known as central core myopathy, is an autosomal dominant congenital myopathy (inborn muscle disorder). It was first described by Shy and Magee in 1956. It is characterized by the appearance of the myofibril under the microscope. The symptoms of CCD are variable, but usually involve hypotonia (decreased muscle tone) at birth, mild delay in child development (highly variable between cases), weakness of the facial muscles, and skeletal malformations such as scoliosis and hip dislocation.
Cerebral or brain aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel. A common location of cerebral aneurysms is on the arteries at the base of the brain, known as the Circle of Willis.
Cerebral aneurysms may result from congenital defects, preexisting conditions such as high blood pressure and atherosclerosis (the buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries), or head trauma. Cerebral aneurysms occur more commonly in adults than in children but they may occur at any age. They are more common in women than in men, by a ratio of 3 to 2.
A small, unchanging aneurysm will produce little, if any, symptoms. Before a larger aneurysm ruptures, the individual may experience such symptoms as a sudden and unusually severe headache, nausea, vision impairment, vomiting, and loss of consciousness, or the individual may be asymptomatic, experiencing no symptoms at all.
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), known also as Morbus Charcot-Marie-Tooth, Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy (HSMN), or peroneal muscular atrophy, is an inherited disorder of nerves (neuropathy) that takes different forms. It is characterized by loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation, predominantly in the feet and legs but also in the hands and arms in the advanced stages of disease. Presently incurable, this disease is one of the most common inherited neurological disorders.
Symptoms usually begin in late childhood or early adulthood. Some people don’t experience symptoms until the early thirties. Usually, the initial symptom is foot drop early in the course of the disease. This can also cause claw toe, where the toes are always curled. Wasting of muscle tissue of the lower parts of the legs may give rise to “stork leg” or “inverted bottle” appearance.
Chlamydia infection is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The term Chlamydia infection can also refer to infection caused by any species belonging to the bacterial family Chlamydiaceae. C. trachomatis is found only in humans. Chlamydia is a major infectious cause of human genital and eye disease. Chlamydia infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide.
Chlamydial infection of the neck of the womb (cervicitis) is a sexually transmitted infection which is asymptomatic for about 50-70% of women infected with the disease. The infection can be passed through vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Of those who have an asymptomatic infection that is not detected by their doctor, approximately half will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a generic term for infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries.
Chlamydia conjunctivitis or trachoma was once the most important cause of blindness worldwide, but its role diminished from 15% of blindness cases by trachoma in 1995 to 3.6% in 2002. The infection can be spread from eye to eye by fingers, shared towels or cloths, coughing and sneezing and eye-seeking flies.
Chlamydia may also cause reactive arthritis (reiter’s syndrome) – the triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis and urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) – especially in young men.
Cholesterol is a waxy steroid metabolite found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition, cholesterol is an important component for the manufacture of bile acids, steroid hormones, and fat-soluble vitamins including Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K.
According to the lipid hypothesis, abnormal cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia – that is high cholesterol) are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease because these promote atheroma development in arteries (atherosclerosis). This disease process leads to myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.
Cleft lip (cheiloschisis) and cleft palate (palatoschisis), which can also occur together as cleft lip and palate, are variations of a type of clefting congenital deformity caused by abnormal facial development during gestation. A cleft is a fissure or opening—a gap. It is the non-fusion of the body’s natural structures that form before birth. Approximately 1 in 700 children born have a cleft lip and/or a cleft palate. An older term is harelip, based on the similarity to the cleft in the lip of a hare. Clefts can also affect other parts of the face, such as the eyes, ears, nose, cheeks, and forehead.
A cleft lip/harelip or palate can be successfully treated with surgery, especially so if conducted soon after birth or in early childhood.
Common cold (also known as nasopharyngitis, acute viral rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza, or a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, caused primarily by rhinoviruses and coronaviruses. Common symptoms include a cough, sore throat, runny nose, and fever. There is currently no known treatment that shortens the duration. However, symptoms usually resolve spontaneously in 7 to 10 days, with some symptoms possibly lasting for up to three weeks. The common cold is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult contracting two to four infections a year and the average child contracting up to 6–12. Symptoms are cough, sore throat, runny nose, and nasal congestion; sometimes this may be accompanied by conjunctivitis (pink eye), muscle aches, fatigue, headaches, shivering, and loss of appetite.
The common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The most commonly implicated virus is a rhinovirus (30–50%), a type of picornavirus with 99 known serotypes. Others include: coronavirus (10–15%), influenza (5–15%), human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and metapneumovirus. In total over 200 serologically different viral types cause colds.
Due to the many different types of viruses and their tendency for continuous mutation, it is impossible to gain complete immunity to the common cold.
Cone dystrophy is an inherited ocular disorder characterized by the loss of cone cells, the photoreceptors responsible for both central and color vision.
The most common symptoms of cone dystrophy are vision loss (age of onset ranging from the late teens to the sixties), sensitivity to bright lights, and poor color vision. Therefore, patients see better at dusk. Visual acuity usually deteriorates gradually, but it can deteriorate rapidly to 20/200. Later, in more severe cases, it drops to counting fingers vision. Color vision testing using color test plates (HRR series) reveals many errors on both red-green and blue-yellow plates.
Congenital disorder, or congenital disease, is a condition existing at birth and often before birth, or that develops during the first month of life (neonatal disease), regardless of causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed “congenital anomalies”, which is a different concept which involves defects in or damage to a developing fetus. A congenital disorder may be the result of genetic abnormalities, the intrauterine (uterus) environment, errors of morphogenesis, infection, or a chromosomal abnormality. The outcome of the disorder will depend on complex interactions between the pre-natal deficit and the post-natal environment, so there are many types of congenital disorders.
Cramps are unpleasant and often painful sensations caused by muscle contraction or overshortening. Common causes of skeletal muscle cramps include muscle fatigue, low sodium, and low potassium. Smooth muscle cramps may be due to menstruation or gastroenteritis.
Causes of cramping include hyperflexion of the muscle, hypoxia, exposure to large changes in temperature, dehydration, or low blood salt. Muscle cramps may also be a symptom or complication of pregnancy, kidney disease, thyroid disease, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia or hypocalcemia (as conditions), restless-leg syndrome, varicose veins and multiple sclerosis.
Stretching and massage are widely considered to reduce muscle cramps due to fatigue, but the quality of evidence for both is rather poor. However, Vitamin B complex, lidocaine and calcium channel blockers may be much more effective for muscle cramps.