Here is the list of the most common diseases that start with letter “E“:
- Eales disease
- Escherichia coli
- Ectodermal dysplasia
- Edwards syndrome
- Egg allergy
- Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS)
- Elective mutism
Eales disease, also known as “primary perivasculitis of the retina”, is an ocular disease characterized by inflammation and possible blockage of retinal blood vessels, abnormal growth of new blood vessels (neovascularization), and recurrent retinal and vitreal hemorrhages.
Eales disease most commonly affects healthy young adults. Male predominance (up to 97.6%) has been reported in a majority of the series. The predominant age of onset of symptoms is between 20 and 30 years. The disease is now seen more commonly in the Indian subcontinent. Eales disease with a characteristic clinical picture, fluorescein angiographic finding , and natural course is considered a specific disease entity. Patients are often asymptomatic in the initial stages of retinal perivasculitis. Some patients may develop symptoms such as floaters, blurring vision, or even gross diminution of vision due to massive vitreous hemorrhage. Vision in these patients can be normal to hand movements or light perception only. Bilaterality is quite common (50-90%) patients.
Ebola is the virus Ebolavirus (EBOV), a viral genus, and the disease Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). The virus is named after the Ebola River Valley in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), which is near the site of the first recognized outbreak in 1976 at a mission hospital run by Flemish nuns. The virus interferes with the endothelial cells lining the interior surface of blood vessels and with coagulation. As the blood vessel walls become damaged and destroyed, the platelets are unable to coagulate, patients succumb to hypovolemic shock. Ebola is transmitted through bodily fluids, while conjunctiva exposure may also lead to transmission.
There are five recognized species within the ebolavirus genus, which have a number of specific strains: The Zaire (ZEBOV) virus is the type species, which is also the first discovered and the most lethal. The symptoms resembled malaria, and subsequent patients received quinine. The initial transmission was believed to be due to reuse of the needle for Lokela’s injection without sterilization; Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV) – The virus was the second species of Ebola emerging simultaneous with the Zaire virus. It was believed to have originated amongst cotton factory workers in Nzara, Sudan, with the first case reported as a worker exposed to a potential natural reservoir. Scientists tested all animals and insects in response to this; however, none tested positive for the virus. The carrier is still unknown; Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) - Discovered during an outbreak of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in crab-eating macaques from Hazleton Laboratories (now Covance) in 1989. Since the initial outbreak in Reston, Virginia, it has emerged in Siena Italy, Texas, and among pigs in the Philippines; Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV) – Also referred to as Ivory Coast ebolavirus and Tai ebolavirus, it was first discovered among chimpanzees from the Tai Forest in Côte d’Ivoire, Africa, on 1 November 1994. Necropsies showed blood within the heart to be brown, no obvious marks were seen on the organs, and one necropsy displayed lungs filled with blood. Studies of tissues taken from the chimpanzees showed results similar to human cases during the 1976 Ebola outbreaks in Zaire and Sudan. As more dead chimpanzees were discovered, many tested positive for Ebola using molecular techniques; Bundibugyo ebolavirus – On November 24, 2007, the Uganda Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebola in the Bundibugyo District. After confirmation of samples tested by the United States National Reference Laboratories and the CDC, the World Health Organization confirmed the presence of the new species. On 20 February 2008, the Uganda Ministry officially announced the end of the epidemic in Bundibugyo with the last infected person discharged on 8 January 2008.
Although the incubation period is generally 5–18 days, it ranges from 2 to 21 days. Illness is characterized by the rapid onset of fever, malaise, muscle pain, headache, and the inflammation of the pharynx. Six days following vomiting and bloody diarrhea, individuals may develop maculopapular rash with bleeding at needle sites and bodily orifices.
Eclampsia (Greek, “shining forth”), an acute and life-threatening complication of pregnancy, is characterized by the appearance of tonic-clonic seizures, usually in a patient who had developed pre-eclampsia. (Preeclampsia and eclampsia are collectively called Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and toxemia of pregnancy)
Typically patients show signs of pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria prior to the onset of the hallmark of eclampsia, the eclamptic convulsion. Other cerebral signs may precede the convulsion such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and cortical blindness. In addition, with the advancement of the pathophysiological process, other organ symptoms may be present including abdominal pain, liver failure, signs of the HELLP syndrome, pulmonary edema, and oliguria. The fetus may have been already compromised by intrauterine growth retardation, and with the toxemic changes during eclampsia may suffer fetal distress. Placental bleeding and placental abruption may occur.
Eclampsia, like preeclampsia, tends to occur more commonly in first pregnancies and young mothers where it is thought that novel exposure to paternal antigens is involved. Further, women with preexisting vascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes, and nephropathy) or thrombophilic diseases such as the antiphospholipid syndrome are at higher risk to develop preeclampsia and eclampsia.
The treatment of eclampsia requires prompt intervention and aims to prevent further convulsions, control the elevated blood pressure and deliver the fetus.
Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram negative rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some, such as serotype O157:H7, can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and by preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine.
E. coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. An estimated 73,000 cases of infection and 61 deaths occur in the United States each year. Infection often leads to bloody diarrhea, and occasionally to kidney failure. Most illness has been associated with eating undercooked, contaminated ground meat. Consumers can prevent E. coli O157:H7 infection by thoroughly cooking ground meat (beef usually), avoiding unpasteurized milk, and washing hands carefully.
Ectodermal dysplasia is not a single disorder, but a group of syndromes all deriving from abnormalities of the ectodermal structures. More than 150 different syndromes have been identified. Despite some of the syndromes having different genetic causes the symptoms are sometimes very similar. Diagnosis is usually by clinical observation often with the assistance of family medical histories so that it can be determined whether transmission is autosomal dominant or recessive.
Ectodermal dysplasias are described as “heritable conditions in which there are abnormalities of two or more ectodermal structures such as the hair, teeth, nails, sweat glands, cranial-facial structure, digits and other parts of the body.”
Eczema is a form of dermatitis, or inflammation of the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin). In England, an estimated 5,773,700 or about one in every nine people have been diagnosed with the disease by a clinician at some point in their lives. The term eczema is broadly applied to a range of persistent skin conditions. These include dryness and recurring skin rashes that are characterized by one or more of these symptoms: redness, skin edema (swelling), itching and dryness, crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding. Areas of temporary skin discoloration may appear and are sometimes due to healed injuries. Scratching open a healing lesion may result in scarring and may enlarge the rash.Eczema may be confused with urticaria. In contrast to psoriasis, eczema is often likely to be found on the flex aspect of joints.
There is no known clear cure for eczema. Therefore, treatments aim to control the symptoms by reducing inflammation and relieving itching.
Edwards syndrome (also known as Trisomy E or Trisomy 18 (T18) ) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 18th chromosome. It is named after John H. Edwards, who first described the syndrome in 1960. It is the second most common autosomal trisomy, after Down Syndrome, that carries to term. Trisomy 18 is caused by the presence of three – as opposed to two – copies of chromosome 18 in a fetus or infant’s cells. The incidence of the syndrome is estimated as one in 3,000 live births. The incidence increases as the mother’s age increases. The syndrome has a very low rate of survival, resulting from heart abnormalities, kidney malformations, and other internal organ disorders.
Egg allergy is a type of food allergy. It is a hypersensitivity to dietary substances from the yolk or whites of eggs, causing an overreaction of the immune system which may lead to severe physical symptoms for millions of people around the world. Egg allergy appears mainly, but not exclusively, in children. In fact, it is the second most common food allergy in children. (The most common is cows’ milk allergy). It is usually treated with an exclusion diet and vigilant avoidance of foods that may be contaminated with egg. The most severe food allergy reaction is called anaphylaxis and is an emergency situation requiring immediate attention and treatment with epinephrine.
There is currently no cure for egg allergy. Most people who are allergic to eggs avoid eating any form of egg or egg component. For people with a more serious allergic reaction to eggs, urticaria (hives) and inflammation can occur and as such, doctors suggest that the person carries around an EpiPen.
Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) (also known as “Cutis hyperelastica“) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders, caused by a defect in the synthesis of collagen (a protein in connective tissue – usually Type I and III). The collagen in connective tissue helps tissues to resist deformation (decreases its elasticity). In the skin, muscles, ligaments, blood vessels and visceral organs, collagen plays a very significant role and with increased elasticity, secondary to abnormal collagen, pathology results. Depending on the individual mutation, the severity of the syndrome can vary from mild to life-threatening. There is no cure, and treatment is supportive, including close monitoring of the digestive, excretory and particularly the cardiovascular systems. Corrective surgery may help with some of the problems that may develop in certain types of EDS, although the condition means that extra caution is advised and special practices observed.
Elective mutism is the former name for selective mutism, a childhood anxiety disorder. Elective mutism was defined as a refusal to speak in almost all social situations (despite normal ability to do so), while selective mutism is considered to be a failure to speak in specific situations and is strongly associated with social anxiety disorder. In contrast to selective mutism, someone who is electively mute may not speak in any situation, as is usually shown in books and movies. Elective mutism is often attributed to defiance or the effect of trauma.
Emetophobia is an intense, irrational fear or anxiety pertaining to vomiting. This specific phobia can also include subcategories of what causes the anxiety, including a fear of vomiting in public, a fear of seeing vomit, a fear of watching the action of vomiting or fear of being nauseated. Emetophobia is clinically considered an “elusive predicament” because limited research has been done pertaining to it. It is considered to be one of the most common phobias in the world. Because there have been a limited number of studies in regard to emetophobia, no specific treatment can be explicitly called the cure to this fear. Therapies and treatments available for individuals with other phobias have been used in trying to treat people with emetophobia.
Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain. Encephalitis with meningitis is known as meningoencephalitis.
Symptoms include headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, and fatigue. More advanced and serious symptoms include seizures/convulsions, tremors, hallucinations, and memory problems.
Viral encephalitis can be due either to the direct effects of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection. A common cause of encephalitis in humans is herpes simplex virus type I (HSE) which may cause inflammation of the brain. This can result in death. Others include infection by Flaviviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis or West Nile virus, or Togaviruses such as Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Western equine encephalitis (WEE) and Venezualen equine encephalitis (VEE).
Treatment is usually symptomatic. Reliably tested specific antiviral agents are available only for a few viral agents (e.g. acyclovir for herpes simplex virus) and are used with limited success for most infection except herpes simplex encephalitis. In patients who are very sick, supportive treatment, such as mechanical ventilation, is equally important. Corticosteroids (e.g. methylprednisolone) are used to reduce brain swelling and inflammation. Sedatives may be needed for irritability or restlessness. Anticonvulsants are used to prevent seizures.
Epididymitis is a medical condition in which there is inflammation of the epididymis (a curved structure at the back of the testicle in which sperm matures and is stored). This condition may be mildly to very painful, and the scrotum (sac containing the testicles) may become red, warm and swollen. It may be acute (of sudden onset) or rarely chronic.
Epididymitis is the most frequent cause of sudden scrotal pain. In contrast with men that have testicular torsion, the cremaster reflex (elevation of the testicle in response to stroking the upper inner thigh) is not altered. If the diagnosis is not entirely clear from the patient’s history and physical examination, a Doppler ultrasound scan can confirm increased flow of blood to the affected epididymis.
Infection is the most common cause. Antibiotics are used if an infection is suspected. The treatment of choice is azithromycin and cefixime to cover both gonorrhoeae and chlamydia.
Epilepsy (Greek “to seize”) is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by seizures. These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms of abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, with almost 90% of these people being in developing countries. Epilepsy is more likely to occur in young children, or people over the age of 65 years; however, it can occur at any time. As a consequence of brain surgery, epileptic seizures may occur in recovering patients.
Epilepsy is usually controlled, but cannot be cured with medication, although surgery may be considered in difficult cases. However, over 30% of people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications. Not all epilepsy syndromes are lifelong – some forms are confined to particular stages of childhood. Epilepsy should not be understood as a single disorder, but rather as syndromic with vastly divergent symptoms but all involving episodic abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
Epstein-Barr, frequently referred to as EBV, is a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses. It is a virus of the herpes family, which includes herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. The virus occurs worldwide, and most people become infected with EBV sometime during their lives. In the United States, as many as 95% of adults between 35 and 40 years of age have been infected. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection (present at birth) disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the US and in other developed countries, many persons are not infected with EBV in their childhood years.
Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Sometimes, a swollen spleen or liver involvement may develop.
Exostosis is the formation of new bone on the surface of a bone. Exostosis can cause chronic pain ranging from mild to debilitatingly severe, depending on where they are located and what shape they are.
The overgrowth of outer ear canal bone is the body’s way of protecting the ear drum from the frequent rush of dirty water against it which commonly occurs with water related sports like surfing. They develop over many years and result in infections, pain, plugging and hearing loss.
When used in the phrases “Cartilaginous exostosis” or “Osteocartilaginous exostosis”, it is considered synonymous with Osteochondroma. Some sources consider the terms to mean the same thing even without qualifiers, but this interpretation is not universal.