The health problems that are the most frequent in worldwide population nowadays are listed below. They all have a very high incidence and humans face them very often during their lifespan.
10. High Blood Pressure
Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is a cardiac chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated. It is the opposite of hypotension. Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) or secondary. About 90–95% of cases are termed “primary hypertension”, which refers to high blood pressure for which no medical cause can be found. The remaining 5–10% of cases (Secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart, or endocrine system.
9. Hepatitis A and B
Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is transmitted person-to-person by ingestion of contaminated food or water or through direct contact with an infectious person. Tens of millions of individuals worldwide are estimated to become infected with HAV each year.
Hepatitis B is an infectious illness caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of hominoidea, including humans, and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. Originally known as “serum hepatitis”, the disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. About a third of the world’s population, more than 2 billion people, have been infected with the hepatitis B virus. This includes 350 million chronic carriers of the virus. Transmission of hepatitis B virus results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids.
The acute illness causes liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice and rarely, death. Chronic hepatitis B may eventually cause liver cirrhosis and liver cancer—a fatal disease with very poor response to current chemotherapy.
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes:
* Type 1 diabetes: results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
* Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
* Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
7. Digestive Problems
These include Constipation – one of the most common diseases of the digestive system. Constipation simply means temporary loss of smooth bowel movement. In this condition, going to the toilet for bowel evacuation is a painful activity. This happens because the fecal matter is hard and hence eliminating it out of the body can bring lot of discomfort; Diarrhea – Diarrhea causes frequent bowel movement and is typically marked by defecation of watery stools. This is basically a viral infection that usually subsides on its own without any medical treatment. Staying away from diary products is often recommended as they aggravate symptoms of diarrhea; Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - is a digestion problem in which the large intestine (colon) is not in a position to work efficiently. This condition typically causes abdominal pain, boating gas, stomach cramps and alternating bouts of diarrhea and constipation. Fortunately IBS is not worrisome as the colon does not suffer from irreversible damage. As the cause of IBS is unknown, taking appropriate medication to relieve symptoms is prescribed; Stomach ulcers – A stomach ulcer is an open sore formed by the erosion of a small area in the mucus membrane lining the stomach. The eroded part lining the stomach is often the result of H.pylori infection that typically reduces appetite, eventually leading to weight loss. H.pylori is a bacterium and so treatment involves taking antibiotics for a stipulated period of time.
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6. Arthritis and Rheumatism
Arthritis is a group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body. There are over 100 different forms of arthritis. The most common form, osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) is a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and related autoimmune diseases. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection.
The major complaint by individuals who have arthritis is joint pain. Pain is often a constant and may be localized to the joint affected. The pain from arthritis occurs due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint from disease, daily wear and tear of joint, muscle strains caused by forceful movements against stiff, painful joints and fatigue.
Also, rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the joints and connective tissue. The major rheumatic disorders currently recognized include back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, ankle pain etc.
5. Head Ache
Headache or cephalgia is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It can be a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and neck. The brain tissue itself is not sensitive to pain because it lacks pain receptors. Rather, the pain is caused by disturbance of the pain-sensitive structures around the brain. Several areas of the head and neck have these pain-sensitive structures, which are divided in two categories: within the cranium (blood vessels, meninges, and the cranial nerves) and outside the cranium (the periosteum of the skull, muscles, nerves, arteries and veins, subcutaneous tissues, eyes, ears, sinuses and mucous membranes).
4. Heart Diseases
Heart disease or cardiopathy is an umbrella term for a variety of diseases affecting the heart.
Coronary heart disease refers to the failure of the coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscle and surrounding tissue. Coronary heart disease is most commonly equated with Coronary artery disease although coronary heart disease can be due to other causes, such as coronary vasospasm.
Cardiomyopathy literally means “heart muscle disease” (Myo= muscle, pathy= disease) It is the deterioration of the function of the myocardium (i.e., the actual heart muscle) for any reason. People with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death.
Cardiovascular disease is any of a number of specific diseases that affect the heart itself and/or the blood vessel system, especially the veins and arteries leading to and from the heart. Research on disease dimorphism suggests that women who suffer with cardiovascular disease usually suffer from forms that affect the blood vessels while men usually suffer from forms that affect the heart muscle itself.
Ischaemic heart disease – another disease of the heart itself, characterized by reduced blood supply to the organs.
Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure (or CHF), and congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body.
Allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system. Allergic reactions occur to normally harmless environmental substances known as allergens; these reactions are acquired, predictable, and rapid. Strictly, allergy is one of four forms of hypersensitivity and is called type I (or immediate) hypersensitivity. It is characterized by excessive activation of certain white blood cells called mast cells and basophils by a type of antibody known as IgE, resulting in an extreme inflammatory response. Common allergic reactions include eczema, hives, hay fever, asthma attacks, food allergies, and reactions to the venom of stinging insects such as wasps and bees.
Mild allergies like hay fever are highly prevalent in the human population and cause symptoms such as allergic conjunctivitis, itchiness, and runny nose. Allergies can play a major role in conditions such as asthma. In some people, severe allergies to environmental or dietary allergens or to medication may result in life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. A variety of tests now exist to diagnose allergic conditions; these include testing the skin for responses to known allergens or analyzing the blood for the presence and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Treatments for allergies include allergen avoidance, use of anti-histamines, steroids or other oral medications, immunotherapy to desensitize the response to allergen, and targeted therapy.
2. Influenza / Common cold
The common cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, caused primarily by rhinoviruses and coronaviruses. Common symptoms include a cough, sore throat, runny nose, and fever. There is currently no known treatment that shortens the duration; however, symptoms usually resolve spontaneously in 7 to 10 days, with some symptoms possibly lasting for up to three weeks.
The common cold is the a very frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult contracting two to four infections a year and the average child contracting between 6–12. Collectively, colds, influenza, and other infections with similar symptoms are included in the diagnosis of influenza-like illness.
1. Tooth Decay
The most common disease is periodontal disease—disease of the gum, bones, and/or connective tissue that support the teeth. An example of periodontal disease is gingivitis, the inflammation of the gums. Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, is a disease where bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure (enamel, dentin, and cementum). More people get tooth decay, or cavities, than any other disease. Almost everyone in the world has a cavity sometime during his life.